Syllabus

 

 

Pharm-D. First Professional

Course No.

First Semester Course Title

Cr. Hours

 

Nil

 

Course No.

Second Semester Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-312

Pharmacognosy - General Pharmacognosy

3

Pharm-D. Second Professional

Course No.

Third Semester Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-411

Pharmacognosy (Lab)-I

3

Course No.

Fourth Semester Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-412

Pharmacognosy - Chemical Pharmacognosy-I

3

Pharm-D. Third Professional

Course No.

First Semester

Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-511

Pharmacognosy - Chemical Pharmacognosy-II

3

Course No.

Second Semester

Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-512

Pharmacognosy (Lab)-II

3

PHG-514

Pharmacognosy - Plant Toxicology

2

Pharm-D. Fourth Professional

Course No.

First Semester

Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-611

Advance Pharmacognosy

3

Course No.

Second Semester

Course Title

Cr. Hours

 

Nil

 

Pharm-D. Fifth Professional

Course No.

First Semester

Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-713

Pharmacognosy - Clinical Pharmacognosy

2

Course No.

Second Semester

Course Title

Cr. Hours

PHG-714

Pharmacognosy - Spectroscopy of Natural Products

2

 

 

First Professional Second Semester

PHARMACOGNOSY PHG-312
General Pharmacognosy-1 C. Hrs. 3

1. Historical Development and Scope of Pharmacognosy
A general idea and development of the subject from primitive stage to the present day. Muslim’s contribution to Pharmacy, introduction to herbal and pharmacopoeias.

2. Crude Drugs
Crude drugs, commerce and preparation of drugs, official and non-official drugs, chemical and therapeutic classification.

3. Evaluation and Adulteration of Drugs
The organoleptic, microscopic and physical evaluation of the drugs. Types of adulteration, inferiority, spoilage, admixture, sophistication and substitution.

4. Drugs of Animal origin
General introduction and discussion about honey, gelatin, shellac, musk, civet, ambergris, cod liver oil, cantharides and spermaceti in detail.

5. Biologics
Sources, structures, preparation, description and uses of vaccines, toxins, antitoxins, venoms, antivenins, antiserum and etc.

6. Surgical Dressings
Evaluation of fibers in surgical dressing, classification, vegetable, animals and synthetic products, standard of BPC dressings and sutures, cotton, wool, cellulose, rayon, catgut and nylon, etc.

7. Pesticides
Introduction, methods and control of pests with special reference to pyrethrum, tobacco, etc.

Reference Books

1. Dales M. J. A review of plant materials used for controlling insect pest of stored products (1996). 
2. Tyler V.E., Brady E.R. and Robbers J.E. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed: Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia (1988).
3. Trease G.E. and Evans W.C. Pharmacognosy. Bailliere Tindal Publisher, London (1998).
4. Personalities Noble, Hamdard Foundation Press (1991).
5. Hocking G.M. A Dictionary of Terms in Pharmacognosy (1955).
6. Manittoo P. Biosynthesis of Natural Products (1981).
7. Farnsworth N.R. Immunizing Biologicals (1970).
8. Taylor N. Plant Drugs that Changed the World (1965).
9. Wallis T.E. Text book of Pharmacognosy (1967).


Second Professional First Semester

PHARMACOGNOSY PHG-411
Pharmacognosy (Practical) C. Hrs. 3

1. Macroscopic Examination of Natural Products
Over ground parts: Seed: Melia, Cucumis, Psoralea, Ricinus, Lallementia, Ipomea, Nigella, Datura, Tamarix, Nux vomica, Punica and Prunus. Fruit: Cuminum, Soap nut, Cubeba, Citrus, Embelica, Opium, Pongamia, Beal fruit, Ficus, Terminalia, Sphaeranthus, Pimpinella, Tribulus, Prunus, Gossypium and Phycotis. Pod: Helicteres. Cassia and Moringa. Flower: Punica and Viola. Leaf: Lawsonia, Onosma, Cinnamon, Gymnema. Bark: Cinnamon and Ratanjot.
Under ground parts: Roots and Rhizomes: Alpinia, Flacourtia, Curcuma, Zingibar, Valeriana, Cuscuta, Glycyrrhiza and Smilax.
Unorganised drugs: Extracts: Aloe, Uncaria, Agar, Opium latex. Exudates: Asafoetida, Acacia, Styrax benzoin, Bambusa, Jalap resin, Turpentine, Rosin etc. The number of crude drugs for macroscopial studies may be increased on the availability of sources.
Animal drugs: Silk cocoon, Shellac, Lanolin, Canthrides, Stag horn, Apis.
Mineral drugs: Sulphur, Alum, Borax, Ammonian chloride, Asphalt.
Miscellaneous: Lupulin, Aloe, Asafoetida, Acacia, Ergot, Carnauba, Tragacanth, Agar, Cochineal, Rosin, Turpentine, Gamboge.

2. Microscopic Examination of Natural Products
Powdered drug examination: Cinnamon bark, nux vomica seeds, clove flower bud, senna leaf, coriander, cardamon, caraway hyocyamus, nutmeg, anise, fennel fruits. glycyrrhiza, belladonna roots, ginger, rhubarb rhizome, jalap and podophylum resin.
Histological examination by section cutting: Transverse sections of fresh and crude drugs. Stem: Ephedra, hyocyamus, atropa, datura and catharenthus. Leaf: senna, pippermint, digitalis, eucalyptus. Fruit: piper, fennel, coriander. Seed: Castor. Bark: Cascara, cinnamon. Root: Aconite, Rheum, Belladonna Glycyrrhiza and Rauwolfia. Rhizome: Ginger, Termeric. Flower: clove flower bud.

3. Phytochemical Examination of Natural Products
Stem: Senna, mentha, ephedra, hyoscyamus, atropa, datura, catharanthus. 
Roots: Aconite, rheum, belladonna, rauwolfia.
Rhizome: Podophyllum, Sanguineria.
Leaves: Mentha, digitalis, senna, eucalyptus.
Fruits and Seeds: Clove, fennel, castor, coriander.
Barks: Cascara, cinnamomum.

4. Powdered Vegetable Drugs
Cinnamon, cinchona, belladonna roots; digitalis, hyoscyamus, senna leaves; datura, clove, artemesia, cardamomum, colchicum seeds; nuxvomica, nutmeg, anise, caraway, coriander, fennel, aconite, ginger, podophyllum, jalap, glycyrrhiza, rauwolfia, rhubarb, rhizomes.

5. Surgical Dressings
Examination of surgical dressings and test for sterility of surgical dressings and sutures as given in B.P.C.

6. Analysis and Isolation of Natural Products
Identification of fixed oil by colour reactions.
Assay of benzoin.
To determine the acid value of rosin.
Saponification value of cotton seed oil.
Iodine value of olive oil.
Assay of pepermint oil for total esters.
Determination of volatile oil in Cinnamon.
Colour reactions of tannins.
Isolation of shikimic acid from Illicium anisatum.
Isolation of menthol from Mentha piperita.
Isolation of rotenone from Longhicarpus spp.
Isolation of coumarin from Melilotus officinalis.

Reference Books

1. Harbone J.B. Phytochemical Methods (1998).
2. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences (2000). 
3. Cordelll G. A. Changing Strategies in Natural Products Chemistry (1995).
4. Yungken J. Plant Histology (1970).
5. Brain K.R. and Turner T.D. The Practical Evaluation of Phyto Pharmaceuticals (1975).
6. Harris K.I. Microscopic Analytical Methods in Food and Drugs Control (1960).
7. Stahl E. Drug Analysis by Chromatography and Microscopy (1973).
8. Betty P.J. and Derek W.S. Atlas of Microscopy of Medicinal Plants Culinary Herbs and Spices (1992).


Second Professional Second Semester

PHARMACOGNOSY PHG-412
Chemical Pharmacognosy-I C. Hrs. 3

1. Carbohydrates and Related Compounds
Introduction, classification and photosynthesis, sugars as adjuvant in drugs, role of impurities in sugar substances.

2. Essential Oils
Introduction, classification, source, description, active constituents and pharmacological uses of the following, Clove oil, fennel oil, coriander oil, orange oil, eucalyptus oil, peppermint oil, anise oil, chenopodium oil, turpentine oil, lemon peel oil, citronella oil, caraway oil and thyme oil.

3. Fixed Oils
Introduction, classification, source, description, active constituents and pharmacological uses of the following: Castor oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, chaulmoogra oil, corn oil, coconut oil, almond oil, linseed oil, mustard oil, palm oil and soya oil.

4. Tannins
Introduction, classification, biosynthesis, extraction and identification, occurrence in plants, its role in plant life and chemical study of tannic acids in kino, myroblan, catechu, nutgall, castanea, and krameria.

5. Resins and Oleoresins
Introduction, classification, active constituents, pharmacological uses of jalap, turpentine, asafoetida, benzoin, rosin, cannabis, podophyllum, ipomea, myrrh, and balsam.

6. Chromatography
Introduction to chromatography, types of chromatography, application of chromatography for the separation and identification of drug substances.

Reference Books

1. Tyler V.E., Brady E.R. and Robbers J.E. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia (1988).
2. Trease G.E. and Evans W.C. Pharmacognosy. Bailliere Tindal Publisher, London (1998).
3. G.O. Aspinall, The Polysaccharides Vol (1-2) (1982,83)
4. Guthrie R.D. and Honeyman I. An Introduction to the Chemistry of the Carbohydrates (1974).
5. Usmanghani K. Topics in Pharmacognosy (1979). 
6. Goodwin T.W. Biochemistry of Lipids (1977).
7. Bennett H. Industrial Wakes, Vol 1-11 (1975).
8. Harbone J.B. and Malry T.J. The Flavonoid (1982). 
9. Haworth R.D. The Chemistry of Tanning (1963).
10. Namba T., Tuda Y. Outline of Pharmacognosy. Nankodo Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japanese Language) (1993).
11. Wagner H. Pharmazeutische Biologie. Gustav Fischer Verag, Stuttgard, (German Language) (1982).
12. Howes F.N. Vegetable Gunsard Resins (1949).
13. Bernfeld P. Biogenesis of Natural Compound (1967). 
14. Natori S., Ikek¬awa N. and Suzuki M. Advances in Natural Products Chemistry. John Wiley & sons London (1982).
15. Simpson C.F. Practical HPLC, Heyden & Sons Ltd., London (1979).
16. Grob R.L. Modern Practice of Gas Chro¬matography, John Wiley, London (1976).
17. Heftmann E. Chromatography, Von Nostrond Reinheld Co., New York (1975).
18. Pryde A. and Gilbert M.J. Applications of High Per¬formance Liquid Chromatog¬raphy, Chapman & Hall, London (1979).
19. Stahl E. Thin Layer Chromatography. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1969).
20. Ham¬ilton R., Sewell P.A. Introduction to HPLC, Chapman & Hall, London (1982).
21. Mantell S.H. and Smith H. (Eds.) Plant Biotechnology. Cam¬bridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (1983).

Third Professional First Semester

PHARMACOGNOSY – PHG-511
Chemical Pharmacognosy-II Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Alkaloids
Introduction, classification, extraction, isolation, biosynthesis and pharmacognostic studies of pyridine group piperidine (piprine) (Tobacco), tropane group (Hyocyamus, Atropa, Datura), imidazole group (Pilocarpus), isoquinoline group (Ipecac, curare, opium), quinoline group (Cinchona), indole group (Ergot, Rauwolfia, Catharanthus, Nuxvomica), purine group (Thea), steroidal group (Veratrum), diterpene group (Aconite), phenethylamine group (Ephedra, Colchicum).

2. Glycosides
Introduction, classification, chemistry, extraction, isolation, pharmacology and medicinal uses of glycyrrhiza, dioscorea, ginseng, cascara, senna, aloe, rhubarb, and Flavonoids, ruta etc.

3. Steroids
Introduction, extraction, isolation, nomenclature and medicinal uses of bile acids, plant sterols, cardiac glycosides, steroidal sapogenins, vitamins, steroid hormones, Withanolides and Ecdysons sources and toxic manifestations.

4. Poisonous Plants
General introduction. Sources and toxic manifestations of poisonous plants with special reference to Pakistan.

5. Herbal Practice
Study of traditional medicine in Pakistan.

Reference Books

1. Bell. F.A., Harlwood B.V. Encyclopedia of Plant physiology Secondary Plant Products (1980). 
2. Manske R.H.F. The Alkaloids Vol.V-XVI Academic Press, New York (1955-1977).
3. Pellwtier S.W. Alkaloids Vol. 1-3 (1985).
4. Rahman A.U. and Basha A. Biosynthesis of Indole Alkaloids (1983).
5. Stumpt P.K. and Conn. E.E. The Biochemistry of Plants Secondary Plant Products (1981).
6. Goodwin T.W. Biosynthesis of Plant Sterols and other Triterperoids (1981).
7. Bodem. G. and Dangler H.J. Cardiac Glycosides (1978).
8. Glasbay J.S. Encyclopedia of Terpenoids. Vols. 1-11 (1981).
9. Usman Ghani, Aftab Saeed and Alam T. Indusunic Medicine (1996).
10. Copping L.G., Martin R.E., Pickett J.A., Bucke C. and Bunch A.W. (Eds.) Opportunities in Biotransfor¬mations. Elsevier Press, London (1990).
11. Usmanghani K. (Ed.). Chemical Pharmacognosy, University Grants Commission, Islamabad (1985).
12. Usmang¬hani K. Biologically Active Alkaloids and Glycosides, Hamdard Foundation Paki¬stan, Karachi (1989).
13. Manitto P. Biosynthesis of Natural Pro¬ducts. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1981).
14. Goodwin T.W. and Mercer E.I. Introduction to Plant Bio¬chemistry. Pergamon Press, Ox¬ford (1972).
15. Bernfield P. Biogenesis of Natural Com¬pounds, Per¬gamon Press, Oxford (1963).
16. Sawright A.A., Hegarty M.P., James L.F. and Keeler R.F. (Eds.). Plant Toxicology. Dominion Press, Melbourne (1984).
17. Frohne D. and Pfander H.J. A Color Atlas of Poisonous Plants, Wolfe Publisher Ltd., Stuttgart (1983).
18. Baqar Hussain. Poisonous Plant of Pakistan (1990).
19. Mansoor Ahmad. Toxins of 30 Arabian Poisonous Plants. Philadelphia University (1994).

Third Professional Second Semester

PHARMACOGNOSY PHG-512 
Pharmacognosy (Practical) Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Preliminary Screening of Natural Products
Preliminary chemical tests for the detection of carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, saponins, terpenes and flavonoids.
Alkaloids, Mayer's reagent test, Wagner's reagent test, Dragendorff's reagent test.
Glycosides, Kedde reagent test, Keller killiani test.
Saponins, haemolysis test, froth test, Leibermann-Burchard test.
Sterols, Salkoawaski test.
Flavonoids, colour test, cyanidin test.
Tannins, ferric chlorides test, lead acetate test.

2. Chromatography
To show the presence of strychnine and brucine in Nux vomica mixture (acid or akaline) by thin layer chromatography (TLC).
To examine tinctures or extracts of digitalis leaf by paper chromatography.
To separate different constituents of alkaloid mixture or colouring substances by column chromatography.
The determination of ephedrine hydrochloride through ion exchange chromatography.
Separation of alkaloids from an extract of tincture of Belladonna through ion exchange chromatography.

3. Isolation and Identification of Natural Products
Isolation of hyoscyamine from Atropa belladonna.
Isolation of piperine from Piper nigrum.
Isolation of strychnine, brucine from Strychnos nux-vomica.
Isolation of caffeine from Thea sinensis.
Extraction of clove oil by steam distillation.
Isolation of jalap resin.
Isolation of potato starch.
Identification of fixed oil by colour reactions.
Isolation of trimyristicin and myristicin from Myristica fragrans.
Isolation of pectin from grape fruit.


4. Spectroscopy
Interpretation of I.R. Spectra of antibiotics and glycosides.
Interpretation of U.V. spectra of indole-alkaloids.
Separation and identification of essential oils by GC-MS.

Reference Books

1. Wagener H. and Bladt S. Plant Drug Analysis 2nd edn: Springer, Berlin (1996).
2. Harbone J.B. Phytochemical Methods (1998).
3. Hughton P.J. Laboratory hand book for the fractionation of natural products (1998).
4. Meyer. V, Practical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (1999).
5. King M. B. and Bott T.R. Extraction of Natural Products Using Near Critical Solvents (1993).
6. Braithwaite A. and Smith F.J. Chromatography Methods (1995).


PHARMACOGNOSY PHG-514
Plant Toxicology Cr. Hrs. 2

1. General Introduction to Plant Toxicology
Definition of plant toxins, their classification, chemical nature and types of toxicities caused by these in animals and human subjects.

2. Higher Plant Toxins
Essential oils Terpene (cineol, pine oil), Phenyl propane (apiol, safrole, myristicin), Monoterpene (thujone, menthafuran) Plant acids (oxalic acid, amino acid, resin), Glycosides (Cardiotonic Cyanognic), Alkaloids (imidazole, pyrrolizidine, tropane)

3. Lower Plant Toxins
Bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureous, Clostridium botulinum), Algal toxins (Microcystis aerouginosa blue green algae, Conyaulax cantenella)

4. Mycotoxins
Fungal toxins (Aspergillus spp.,Claviceps purpurea Mushrooms (Amanita spp.)

5. Study of Toxins, their Prevention and Control Methods
Description of plant, pharmacognostic features, pharmacological actions, chemical constituents, side-effects, contra-indications, warnings, treatment, prevention and control methods of Abrus, Aconite, Nux-vomica,, Castor, Aloe, Podophyllum, Ephedra, Opium, Eucalyptus, Tobacco, Cannabis, Digitalis, Datura.

Reference Books

1. Seawright A.A., Hegarty M.P., James L.F. and Keeler R.F. (Eds.) Plant Toxicology, Domin¬ion Press, Melbourne (1984).
2. Frohne D. and Pfan¬der H.J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants, Wolfe Publishing Ltd., Stuttgrt (1983).
3. Keeler R.F. and Tu A.T. Hand Book of Natural Toxins Vol.1-2, Marcel Dekker lflC; New York (1983).
4. Keeler R.F., Kampen K.R.V. and James L.F. Effect of Poisonous Plants on Live Stock, Aca¬demic Press, London (1978).
5. Cheeke P.R. and Shull L.R. Natural Toxicants in Feeds & Food Stuff The Avi Publication Co. Ltd., Connecticut (1985).
7. Lawrence ARA. DER. Natural Products Medicine, A Scientific Guide to Food, Drug, Cosmetics (1988).
8. Baqar Hussain. Poisonous Plant of Pakistan (1990).
9. Mansoor Ahmad. Toxins of 30 Arabian Poisonous Plants. Philadelphia University (1994).

Fourth Professional First Semester

PHARAMACOGNOSY PHG-611
Advance Pharmacognosy Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Vitamins
Introduction, classification, biosynthesis of vitamins and discussion about halibut oil, cod liver oil, dried yeast, vitamin B-Complex i.e. thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and niacinamide, pentothenic acid, cyanocobalamine, folic acid, biotin, vitamin C, A, D, E, and K.

2. Allergens an Allergenic Preparation
Introduction, classification, cause, history, skin test, treatment, inhalent, ingestant, injectant, contactant, infectant, infestant, allergens, plants causing allergy.

3. Enzymes
Introduction, classification, chemistry and functions of plant, animal and microbial enzymes, malt extract, pepsin, streptokinase, asparaginase etc.

4. Hormones
Introduction, historical background, commercial production, extraction and isolation a) Animal hormones: adrenal glands, thyroid glands, pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas, etc. b) Plant hormones Auxins, gibberellin, cytokinins and abscisic acid.

5. Anticancer Agents
Introduction of anticancer agents of natural sources, such as catharanthus, rifamycin group, macrolide antibiotics, colchicum, podophyllum, anti AIDS agents, immunostimulants and adjuvents.

Reference Books

1. Tyler V.E., Brady E.R. and Robbers J.E. Pharmacognosy, 9th Ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia (1988).
2. Trease G.E. and Evans W.C. Pharmacognosy, Bailliere Tindal Publisher, London (1984).
3. Baker B.M. and Bender D.A. Vitamins in Medicine, Vol 1-2 (1980-82).
4. Machlin M.E. Hand Book of Vitamins (1984).
5. Boyer P.D. The Enzymes Vol 1-XIII (1970-76).
6. Wilson J.D. and Foster D.W. Williams Text book of Endocrinology (1985).
7. Gower D.B. Steroid Hormones (1979).
8. Cordell G.A. The Discovery of Plant Anticancer Agents, Chemistry and Industry (1993).
9. Sinha S., Jain S. Natural Products as Anticancer Agents, Progress in Drug Research (1994).
10. Shu Y-Z. Recent Natural Products Based Drugs Development a Pharmaceutical Industry Perspective (1998).

Fifth Professional First Semester

PHARMACOGNOSY PHG-713
Clinical Pharmacognosy Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Introduction to Clinical Pharmacognosy
General introduction to clinical Pharmacognosy, historical background, study of chronic diseases, and their treatment by herbal medicines, epidemiology, causes, pathogenesis, clinical features (sign and symptoms), diagnosis, principles of medication, prognosis, complications and prevention.

2. Clinical Use of Herbal Medicine
Diabetes: Gymnema sylvestre, Melia azadirchta, Momordica chatranta, Syzygium jambulana etc.

Cardiac diseases: Digitalis spp., Convullaria majalis, Urgenia indica, Allium sativum, Punica granatum etc.

Hepatitis: Berberis vulgaris, Picrorrhiza, Lawsonia innermis etc.

Respiratory diseases: Ficus religosa, Adhatoda vasica etc.

Skin diseases: Aloe vera, Angelica, Mentha piperita, Citrus spp., Commiphora mukul etc.

CNS disorders: Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium, Cannabis sativa, Papaver somniferum, Atropa belladonna etc.

Musculo-skeletal disorders: Nigella sativa, Phycotis ajowan, Trigonella foenum ¬graecum, Zingibar officinaec etc.

Renal disorders: Cucumis melo, Berberis vulgaris, Zea mays, Tribulus territris etc.

Reproductive disorders: Saraca indica, Ruta graveolens, Nigella sativa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Claviceps purpurea, Myristica fragrance etc.

G.I.T. disorders: Foeniculun vulgare, Ferrula foietida, Cuminum cyminun, Aegle marmelos, Punus domestica.

Reference Books

1. Wagner H. Immunomodulatony Agents from Plants Brik hauser Verlag, Basle (1999).
2. Williamson E.M. Okpako D.T, Evans F.J, Pharmacological Methods in Phytotherapy Research Vol-1 Selection and Pharmacological Evaluation of Plant Material John Wily Chichester (1996).
3. Handa S.S., Chawla A.S. and Sharma A.K. Plants with Anti inflammatory Activity (1992). 
4. Ghisalberi E.L., Pennachio M. and Alexander E., A Review of Drugs Having Cardiovascular Activity. nearly 400 refeerences; Pharmaceutical Biology (1998).
5. Rashid S., S’Silva L.A., Saeed A. Studies in Pharmacology of Herbal Drugs (vol. 1), Hamdard Foundation Publication (2000).
6. Kenner D. and Requena Y. Botanical Medicine: A Professional Perspective. Paradigm Publication (1996).
7. Bartram T. Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicines Grace Publisher (1995).
8. Tyler V.E. The Honest Herbal, Pharmaceutical Product Press (1993).
9. Nimmo W.S. and Tucker G.T. Clinical Measurements in Drugs Evaluation. Wolfe Publishing Ltd. (1991).
10. Tyler V.E., Brady L.R., Robbers J.E. Pharmacognosy, 10th Ed. Lea and Febiger (2000).
11. Evans W.C. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 166h Ed., Saunders Company (2003).
12. Kulkami, Pragati Prakashan. Pharmacognosy Notes (1991).
13. Magic and Medicines of Plants, Readers Digest Association (1990).
14. Hoffmann D. The New Holistic Herbal, , Element Books Ltd. (1992).
15. Dewick P.M. Medicinal Natural Products John Wiley and Sons (1997).
16. Wag¬ner H. and Wolff P. (Eds.). New Natural Products and Plant Drugs with Pharma¬cological, Biological or Thera¬peutic activity, Springer-Ver¬lag, Berlin (1977).
17. Hostettmann K. and Lea P.J. (Eds.). Biologically Active Natural Products, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1987).
18. Rashid S., S’Silva L.A. Saeed A. Hamdard Studies in Pharmacology of Herbal Drugs (Vol. 1), Foundation Publication (2000).

Fifth Professional Second Semester

PHARMACOGNOSY PHG-714
Spectroscopy of Natural Products Cr. Hrs. 2

An introduction to the different form of spectroscopy as these apply to identify the drug molecules (organic compounds). Description and discussion on structure elucidation of natural products from information afforded by ultraviolet, infra-red, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and other advance techniques.

Reference Books

1. Clark R.J.H. Spectroscopy Biomedical Applications of Compounds, (1996).
2. Francis Mirabella. Modern Techniques in Applied Molecular Spectroscopy (1998).
3. Soft Suresh K. Mukerji. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. (1998).
4. Ulrike Holzgrabe. NMR Spectroscopy in Drug Development and Analysis (1999).
5. Lambert J.B., Shurvell H.F., Verbit L., Cooks R.G. and Stout G.H. Organic Structural Analysis, MacMillan Pub. Co., London, (1976).
6. Govil G., Khetra¬pal C.L. and Saran A. Magnetic Resonance and Medicine. Tata-McGraw-Hill, New Delhi (1984).
7. Bates R.B. and Beavers W.A. Carbon-I3 NMR Spectral Problems. The Humana Press, New Jersey (1981).
8. Becker E.D. High Resolution NMR (Theory and Chemical Applications). Academic Press, London (1980).
9. Rose M.E. and John Stone R.W.A. Mass Spectrometry for Chemists and Biochemists, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (1984).
10. Chaflg R. Basic Principles of Spectros¬copy, McGraw-Hill Co., London (1971).
11. Williams W.H. and Fleming I. Spectroscopic Methods in Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, Lon¬don (1973).
12. Silverstein R.M., Bassler G.C. and Morill T.C. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1986).
13. Abraham R.J. and Loftus P. Proton and Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy, Heyden & Sons, London (1978).
14. Bax A. Two Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Liq¬uids, D. Reidel Publish¬ing Co., London (1985).
15. Atta-ur-Rahman. One and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Elsevier Science Pub¬lishers, Amsterdam (1989).
16. Silverstein R.M., Bassler G.C. and Mor¬ll T.C. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1991).
17. Araham R.J., Fisher J., Loftus P. Introduction to NMR Spec¬troscopy, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1991).