Syllabus

 

Pharm-D

First Professional

 

PHG-312
General Pharmacognosy Cr. Hrs. 3

1.     Historical Development and Scope of Pharmacognosy
General introduction, history of Pharmacognosy with special reference to the contribution of Muslim scientists to the profession of Pharmacy.Introduction to herbal pharmacopoeias and modern concepts about Pharmacognosy.

2.     Crude Drugs
Crude drugs, commerce, preparation, chemical and therapeutic classifications of crude drugs; official and un-official drugs.

3.     Evaluation and Adulteration of Crude Drugs
Organoleptic study, physical evaluation, microscopic evaluation, types of adulteration, inferiority, spoilage, admixture, sophistication and substitution of crude drugs.

4.     Drugs of Animal Origin
General introduction and discussion about honey, gelatin, shellac, musk, civet, ambergris, cod liver oil, cantharides and spermaceti.

5.     Biologics
Sources, structure, preparation, description and uses of vaccines, toxins, antitoxins, venoms, antivenins, antisera.

6.     Surgical Dressings
Classification of fibers as vegetable, animals and synthetic fibers.Evaluation of fibers in surgical dressings, BPC standards for dressings and sutures.Discussion on cotton, wool, cellulose, rayon and catgut.

7.     Pesticides
Introduction, methods and control of pests with special reference to pyrethrum, tobacco, and other natural pesticides.

Books Recommended

  • Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy (16th ed.), William C. Evans, George E. Trease, Daphne Evans, Elsevier (2009).
  • Pharmacognosy (9th ed.), Tyler V.E., Brady L.R. and Robbers J.E., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia (1988).
  • Biologics in General Medicine, Wolf- Henning Boehncke, Heinfried H. Radeke, Springer, (2007).
  • Quality Control of Herbal Drugs: An Approach to Evaluation of Botanicals (1st ed.), Pulok K. MukherJee, Business Horizons (2002).
  • Dictionary of  Natural Products: Terms in the Field of Pharmacognosy Relating to Natural Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Materials and the Plants, Animal and Minerals from Which They are Derived (2nd ed.), George MacDonald Hocking, Plexus Publication, (1997).

 

Second Professional

PHG-411
Pharmacognosy Lab-I  Cr. Hrs. 3 

1. Macroscopic (Organoleptic) Examination of Natural Products
Organized Drugs

Over ground parts
Seed: Melia azadirachta, Cucumis melo, Psoralea corylifolia, Lallementia royleana, Ricinus communis, Ipomea purga, Nigella sativa, Datura stramonium, Tamarix gallica, Strychnos nux-vomica, Punica granatum and Prunus amygdalus.
Fruit: Cuminum cyminum,  Piper nigrum, Cubeba officinalis, Citrus limon, Embelica officinalis, Pongamia pinnata, Papaver somniferum, Aegle marmelos, Ficuscarica, Terminalia chebula, Sphaeranthus indicus, Illicium verum, Tribulus terrestris, Prunus domestica, Gossypium herbacium and Phycotis ajowan.
Pod: Helicteres isora, Cassia fistula and Moringa olifera.
Flower: Punica granatum, Viola odorata, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Onosma bracteatum.
Leaf: Lawsonia innermis, Onosma bracteatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Gymnema sylvester, Catharanthus roseus.
Bark: Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Onosma echioides,  Valeriana hardwickii.
Underground parts
Root and Rhizome: Alpinia officinarium, Flacourtia indica, Curcuma amada, Zingiber officinale, Valeriana officinalis, Cuscuta reflexa, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Smilax china.

Unorganized drugs
Extracts: Aloe indica, Uncaria gambir, Papaver somniferum.
Exudates: Ferula foetida, Acacia arabica, Styrax benzoin, Bambusa arundinacea, Impomea purga, Pinus longifolia.
Animal drugs: Bombyx mori, Laccifer lacca, Ovis aries, Cantheris vesicatoria, Cervus elephus, Apis melifera.
Mineral drugs: Sulphur, Alum, Borax, Ammonium chloride, Asphalt.
The number of crude drugs may be increased on the availability of sources.

2. Microscopic Examination of Natural Products
Powdered Drug Examination
Bark: Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
Seed: Strychnos nux-vomica.
Flower bud: Eugenia caryophyllus.
Leaf: Cassia senna, Lawsonia innermis.
Fruit: Coriandrum sativum, Elettaria cardamomum, Carum carvi, Hyocyamus niger, Myristica fragrans, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare.
Root: Glycryrrhiza glabra, Atropa belladonna.
Rhizome: Zingiber officinale, Rheum officinale.
Resin: Ipomea purga, Podophyllum spp.

Histological Examination by Section Cutting.
Transverse sections of fresh and dried crude drugs
Stem: Ephedra sinica, Hyocyamus niger, Atropa belladona, Datura stramonium, Catharanthus roseus.
Leaf: Cassia senna, Mentha piperita, Digitalis purpurea, Eucalyptus globulus.
Fruit: Piper nigrum, Foeniculum vulgare, Coriandrum staivum.
Seed: Ricinus communis.
Bark: Cascara sagrada, Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
Root: Aconitum spp., Rheum emodi, Atropa belladonna, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rauwolfia serpentina.
Rhizome: Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa.
Flower bud:  Eugenia caryophyllus.

3. Phytochemical Examination of Natural Products
Stem: Cassia senna, Mentha piperita, Ephedra sinica, Hyoscyamus niger, Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium, Catharanthus roseus.
Root: Aconitum spp., Rehum emodi, Atropa belladonna, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rauwolfia serpentina.
Rhizome: Zingiber officinale, Podophyllum spp.  Ipomoea purga,, Rauwolfia serpentina, Rheum emodi
Bark: Cinchona spp., Cascara sagrada, Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
Leafs: Mentha piperita, Digitalis pupurea, Cassia senna, Eucalyptus globulus.
Fruit: Foeniculum vulgare, Coriandrum sativum.
Seed: Strychnos nux-vomica, Myristica fragrans, Pimpinella anisum, Carum carvi.
Flower: Eugenia caryophyllus.

4. Surgical Dressings
Examination of surgical dressings and test for dressings and sutures as given in B.P.C.

5. Analysis and Isolation of Natural Products

    • Identification of fixed oils by colour reactions.
    • Identification of tannins by colour reactions.
    • Determination of the acid value of rosin.
    • Determination of Iodine value of olive oil.
    • Determination of volatile oil in Cinnamon.
    • Determination of saponification value of cotton seed oil.
    • Assay of benzoin.
    • Assay of pepermint oil for total esters.
    • Isolation of menthol from Menthapiperita.
    • Isolation of rotenone from Longicarpus spp.
    • Isolation of coumarin from Melilotus officinalis.
    • Isolation of shikimic acid from Illiciumverum.

Books Recommended

  • Practical Pharmacognosy, S.B Gokhale, Dr. C.K. Kokate, Ali NiraliPrakashan (2008).
  • Practical Pharmacognosy (9th ed.), K. R. Khandelwal, Ali PrakashanNir, (2008).
  • Atlas of Microscopy of Medicinal Plant, Culinary Herbs and Spices, Betty P. Jackson, Derek W. Snowdown (Ed.), CBS Publishers and Distributors, (2005).
  • Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants (vol. 5), T. Pullaiah, Illustrated, Regency Publications, New Delhi (2006).
  • Quality Control of Herbal Drugs: An Approach to Evaluation of Botanicals (1st ed.), Pulok K. MukherjeePublisher Business Horizons, New Delhi (2002).

 

Second Professional

PHG-412
Chemical Pharmacognosy-I  Cr. Hrs. 3

1.     Carbohydrates and Related Compounds
Introduction and classification of carbohydrates, sugars as adjuvant in drugs, role of impurities in sugar substances.

2.     Fixed Oils
Introduction, classification, source, active constituents and pharmacological uses of castor oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, chaulmoogra oil, corn oil, coconut oil, almond oil, linseed oil, mustard oil, palm oil and soya oil.

3.     Essential Oils
Introduction, classification, sources, active constituents and pharmacological uses of clove oil, fennel oil, coriander oil, orange oil, eucalyptus oil, peppermint oil, anise oil, chenopodium oil, turpentine oil, lemon peel oil, citronella oil, caraway oil and thyme oil

4. Resins and Oleoresins
Introduction, classification, active  constituents, pharmacological uses of jalap, turpentine, asafoetida, benzoin, rosin, cannabis, podophyllum, ipomea, myrrh, and balsam.

5.     Tannins
Introduction, classification, biosynthesis, extraction, identification, occurrence in plants, their role in plant life and chemical study of tannins in kino, myroblan, catechu, nutgall, castanea, and krameria.

6.     Chromatography
Introduction, types and application of chromatography for the separation, isolation, purification and identification of drug substances from natural sources.

 

Books Recommended

  • Biosynthesis of Natural Products, Manitto P., John Wiley and Sons, New York (1981).
  • Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods. Part A, Fundamentals and Techniques, E. Heftmann, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).
  • Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals, Nornam G. Bisset (Ed.), Medpharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart (1994).
  • Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach (1st ed.), Paul M Dewick, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester (1997).
  • Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses (vol. 1-3), Ivan A. Ross, Humana Press, New Jersey (2005).

 

Third Professional

PHG-511
Chemical Pharmacognosy-II   Cr. Hrs. 3

1.     Alkaloids
Introduction, biosynthesis, classification, extraction, isolation, pharmacological activity and pharmacognostic studies of Pyridine (Nicotiana spp.), Piperidine  (Nicotiana spp.), Tropane (Hyocyamus, Atropa, Datura spp.), Imidazole (Pilocarpus spp.), Isoquinoline (Ipecac, Curare, Opium spp.), Quinoline (Cinchona spp.), Indole (Ergot, Rauwolfia, Catharanthus, Nux-vomica spp.), Purine (Thea spp.), Steroidal (Veratrum spp.), Diterpene (Aconitum spp.), Phenethylamine (Ephedra, Colchicum spp.) alkaloids.

2.     Glycosides
Introduction, classification, chemistry, extraction, isolation, pharmacology and medicinal uses of glycosides from Glycyrrhizaglabra, Dioscoreaspp., Panax ginseng, Cascara sagrada, Cassia spp., Aloe spp., Rheum officinale, and   Rutagraveolens

3.     Steroids
Introduction, extraction, isolation, nomenclature, sources and uses of bile acids, plant sterols, cardiac glycosides, steroidal sapogenins, vitamins, steroidal hormones, withanolides and ecdysons.

4.     Poisonous Plants
Introduction, sources and toxic manifestations of poisonous plants with special reference to Pakistan.

5.     Herbal Practice
Study of traditional medical systems as Unnani, Ayurvedic and Homeopathic in Pakistan.

 

Books Recommended

  • Biosynthesis of Natural Products, Mannito P., John Wiley and Sons, New York, (1981).
  • Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals, Nornam G. Bisset (Ed.), Medpharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart (1994).
  • Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach (1st ed.), Paul M Dewick,  John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester (1997).
  • Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses (vol. 1-3), Ivan A. Ross,  Humana Press, New Jersey, (2005).
  • Poisonous Plants of All Countries (2nd ed.),  Arthur-Bernhard Smith, Periodical Expert Book, Delhi (1988).

 

Third Professional

PHG-512
Pharmacognosy Lab-II   Cr. Hrs. 3

1.     Preliminary Screening of Natural Products
Preliminary chemical tests for the detection of carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, saponins, terpenes and flavonoids.

  • Alkaloids: Mayer's reagent test, Wagner's reagent test, Dragendorff's reagent test.
  • Glycosides: Kedde reagent test, Keller killiani test.
  • Saponins:  Haemolysis test, Froth test, Leibermann-Burchard test.
  • Sterols:  Salkowski test.
  • Flavonoids:  Colour test, Cyanidin test.
  • Tannins:  Ferric chlorides test, Lead acetate test.

2.     Chromatography

  • To show the presence of strychnine and brucine in Strychnosnux-vomica mixture (acid or akaline) by thin layer chromatography (TLC).
  • To examine tinctures or extracts of Digitalis purpurea leaf by paper chromatography.
  • To separate different constituents of alkaloid mixture or colouring substances by column chromatography.
  • To determine ephedrine hydrochloride through ion exchange chromatography.
  • To separate alkaloids from an extract or tincture of Atropa belladonna through ion exchange chromatography.

3.     Isolation and Identification of Natural Products

  • Hyoscyamine from Atropa belladonna.
  • Piperine from Piper nigrum.
  • Strychnine, brucine from Strychnosnux-vomica.
  • Caffeine from Thea sinensis.
  • Jalap resin from Ipomeapurga.
  • Starch from Solanum tuberosum.
  • Myristicin and trimyristicin from Myristicafragrans.
  • Pectin from Citrus paradisi.
  • Extraction of Clove oil by steam distillation.
  • Identification of fixed oil by colour reactions.

4.     Spectroscopy

  • Interpretation of I.R. spectra of antibiotics and glycosides.
  • Interpretation of U.V. spectra of indole-alkaloids.
  • Separation and identification of essential oils by GC-MS.

 

Books Recommended

  • Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods. Part A, Fundamentals and Techniques, E. Heftmann, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).
  • Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs, Moffat A. C., Pharmaceutical Press, London (1975).
  • Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas (2nd ed.), Hildebert Wagner, SabineBladt, Springer-Verlag, NewYork (1996).
  • Principles of Instrumental Analysis (5th ed.), Douglas A. Skoog, F. James Holler, Timothy A. Nieman, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia (1998).
  • Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Laboratory Handbook,Egon Stahl, Springer-Verlag (1969).

Third Professional

PHG-514
Natural Toxicants  Cr. Hrs.  2

1.    General Introduction to Natural Toxicants     
Definition, classification and chemical nature of natural toxins and toxicities in humans and animals.

2.    Higher Plant Toxins
Essential oils: Terpene (cineol, pine oil), Phenylpropane (apiol, safrole, myristicin), Monoterpene (thujone, menthafuran) Plant acids (oxalic acid, amino acid, resin acid), Glycosides (cardiotonic, cyanognic), Alkaloids (imidazole, pyrrolizidine, tropane).

3.    Lower Plant Toxins
Bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum), Algal toxins (Microcystis aeruginosa, Cyanobecteria, Gonyaulaxcantenella).

4.    Mycotoxins
Fungal toxins (Aspergillus spp., Clavicepspurpurea), Mushrooms (Amanita spp.).

5.    Study of Toxins, their Prevention and Control Methods
Description, pharmacognostic features, pharmacological actions, chemical constituents, treatment, side-effects, contra-indications, warnings, prevention and control methods of Abrusprecatorius, Papaver somniferum, Eucalyptus spp., Nicotianatabaccum, Cannabis sativa, Digitalis purpurea, Datura stramoniumpoisoning.

 

Books Recommended

  • Dictionary of  Plant Toxins, Jeffery B. Harborne, Herbert Baxter, Gerard P. Moss (Eds.), Chichester, John Wiley (1996).
  • Herbal Products, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology (2nd ed.), Timothy S. Tracy, Richard L. Kingston (Eds.), Humana Press, Totowa (2007).
  • Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, S. H. AbidAskari, Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Poisonous Plants: A Hand Book for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians (2nd ed.), Dietrich Forhne, Hans J Pfander, Manson Publishing, London (2004).
  • Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins, Thomas Acamovic, Colin S. Stewart, T. W. Pennycott, CABI (2003).       

 

Fourth Professional

PHG-611 
Advance Pharmacognosy  Cr. Hrs. 3

1.     Nutraceuticals
Introduction, classification, chemistry, role in healthcare system, toxicity, side effects, regulatory and market aspects of nutraceuticals. Role of flavonoids, isoflavones, lycopene, lignans, lutein, phytoestrogens, amino acids, lecithin, octacosanol, co-enzyme Q, vitamins, bromelain, flax seed oil, cranberry extract, tea extract, pycnogenol,  ginkgobiloba, garlic, ginseng, flax, kelp, spirulina, chlorella, chitosan, glucosamine, chondroitin, creatine, carnitine, bee pollen, shark cartilage, royal jelly, fish oil, superoxide dismutase, pro- and pre-biotics,  fluoride, zinc, potassium, calcium and selenium as nutraceuticals.

2.     Cosmeceuticals
Introduction, classification of cosmeceuticals as skin, eye, hair care and others products. Biological studies, chemistry, uses and toxicology of botanicals and their isolated products used in cosmeceuticals. Role of rosemary, lavender, arnica, chamomile, licorice, pomegranate, calendula, cinnamon, aloe, tea, carrot, jojoba, apricot, ginger, olives, coconut, turmeric, thyme, walnut, cucumber, henna, onion, sage, oats, hibiscus, propolis, bromelin, balsam, gum, myrrh, honey, kelp and Laminaria as cosmeceuticals.

3.     Allergens and Allergenic Preparations
Introduction, classification of allergens, causes, history, skin test and treatment of allergies. Types of allergens: inhalent, ingestant, injectant, contactant, infectant and  infestant.

4.     Enzymes
Introduction, classification, chemistry and functions of plant, animal and microbial enzymes. Study of malt extract, pepsin, streptokinase and asparaginase.

5.     Hormones
Introduction, historical background of uses, commercial production, extraction and isolation of animal hormones: adrenal gland, thyroid, pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas; Plant hormones: auxins, gibberellin, cytokinins and abscisic acid.

6.     Anticancer Agents
Introduction of anticancer agents of natural origin, as Catharanthusroseus, Colchicum autumnale, Podophyllumpeltatum, rifamycin antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, Anti-AIDS agents and immunostimulants.

 

Books Recommended

  • Williams Textbook of Endocrinology (11th ed.), Henry Kronenberg, ShlomoMelmed, KenethPolonsky, Saunders, (2008).
  • Anticancer Agents from Natural Products, Gordon M. Cragg, David G. I. Kingston, David J. Newman, CRC Press (2005).
  • Nutraceuticals; A Guide for Healthcare Professionals (2nded.). Brain Lockwood, Pharmaceutical Press, London (2007).
  • Cosmeceuticals and Active Cosmetics: Drugs versus Cosmetics, Peter Elsner and Howard I. Maibach (Eds.), CRC Press (2005).
  • Plants in Cosmetics: Plants and Plant Preparations used as Ingredients for Cosmetic Products.  Anton R., Patri F. Silano V., Council of Europe Publishing (2001).

Fifth Professional

PHG-713
 Clinical Pharmacognosy   Cr. Hrs. 2

1. Introduction to Clinical Pharmacognosy
General introduction and historical background of clinical Pharmacognosy.Study of causes, pathogenesis, clinical features (sign and symptoms), diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and epidemiology of chronic diseases; principles of medication, treatment by herbal medicines.

2. Clinical Use of Herbal Medicine
Diabetes: Gymnema sylvestre, Melia azadirchta, Momordica charantia, Syzygium jambulana.
Cardiac diseases: Digitalis spp., Convallaria majalis, Urgenia indica, Allium sativum, Punica granatum.
Hepatitis: Berberis vulgaris, Picrorhiza kurroa, Lawsonia innermis.
Respiratory diseases: Ficus religiosa, Adhatoda vasica.
Skin diseases: Aloe vera, Angelica archangelica, Mentha piperita, Citrus spp., Commiphora mukul.
CNS disorders: Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium, Cannabis sativa, Papaver somniferum, Atropa belladonna.
Musculo-skeletal disorders: Nigella sativa, Phycotis ajowan, Trigonella foenum-­graecum, Zingiber officinale.
Renal disorders: Cucumis melo, Berberis vulgaris, Zea mays, Tribulus terrestris.
Reproductive disorders:Saraca indica, Ruta graveolens, Nigella sativa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Claviceps purpurea, Myristica fragrance.
G.I.T. disorders:Foeniculum vulgare, Ferula foetida, Cuminum cyminum, Aegle marmelos, Prunus domestica.

 

Books Recommended

  • Principle and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine, Kerry Bone, Simons Mills, Churchil Livingstone (2013).
  • Pharmacological Methods in Phytotherapy Research, Selection, Preparation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Plant Material (vol.1), Elizabeth M. Williamson, David T. Okpako, Fred J. Evans, Wiley Publishers, (1996)
  • Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants (vol. 5), T-Pullaiah., Regency Publication, New Delhi (2006).
  • Natural Products: Drug Discovery and Therapeutic Medicine, Lixin Zhang, Arnold L. Demain (Eds.), Humana Press (2005).
  • Handbook of Clinical Pharmacy, Dr. A. V. Yadav, B.V. Yadav, T. I. Shaikh, NiraliParkashan, Pune (2008).

 

TOP


 

M.Phil

FIRST SEMESTER

PHG-821
Biostatistics   Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Introduction
Biostatistics, application of statistics in biological and pharmaceutical sciences.Types of biological data.

2. Samples and population
Simple random sampling, sample distribution and standard error, stratified random sampling, systematic and cluster sampling.

3. Test of hypothesis and significance
Statistical hypothesis, level of significance, test of significance, confidence interval, test involving binomial and normal distribution.

4. Goodness-of-fit test
Chi-square distribution, its properties and application, contingency tables.Yate's correction for continuity, Test of homogencity.

5. "Student" t- and F-distribution
Properties of t-distribution and F-distribution; test of significance based on t-distribution and F-distribution.

6. Analysis of variance
One-way classification; partitioning of sum of squares and degree of freedom; two-way classification, multiple comparison test; the analysis of variance models.

Experimental designs
Basic principle of experimental designs, completely randomized design; randomized complete block design and Latin-square design.

Books Recommended

  • Bio-Statistic: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences (4th ed.), Wayne. W. Daniel, Wiley Global Education (2012).
  • Introduction to Statistics (3rd ed.), Ronald E. Walpole, Prentice Hall International (1997).
  • Biostatistics: A Methodology for Health Sciences, Gerald van Belle, Lloyd D. Fischer, Patrick J. Heagerty, Thomas Lumely, John Wiley and Sons (2004).
  • Basic Biostatistics: Statistics for Public Health Practice (2nd ed.), B. Burt Gerstman, Jones and Bartlett Learning (2015).
  • Introduction to Biostatistics and Research Methods, P.S.S. Sunder Rao, J. Richard, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. (2012).

 

PHG-823
Advances in Spectroscopic Techniques  Cr. Hrs. 3

Application of major spectroscopic techniques such as infra-red spectroscopy, ultra-violet spectroscopy, optical rotatory dispersion, circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DEPT, COSY-45, J-Resolve, NOESY, Hetero-COSY, NOE), and mass spectrometry (El, Cl, FD, FAB and GC-MS) for the characterization of natural products.

Books Recommended

  • Mass Spectrometry: Instrumentation, Interpretation and Applications, Rolf Ekman, Jerzy Silberring, Ann Westman-Brinkmalam, Agnieszka Kra (Eds.), WielyInterscience, New Jersy (2009).
  • Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry (vol. 1), John C. Lindon, Georg E. Tranter, John L. Holmes, John L. Aaa, Elsevier Science (2000).
  • Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications, Barbara H. Stuart, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. (2004).
  • NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis, IwonaWawer, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Bernd Diehl, Elsevier Publisher (2008).
  • Pharmaceutical Analysis, David Lee, Michael Webb, BlackWell Publishing Ltd. (2003).

 

PHG-825
Analytical Pharmacognosy  Cr. Hrs. 3

Introduction and application of ion exchange chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, droplet counter current chromatography, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis for the separation of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Quantitative determination of active compounds in plant extracts.

Books Recommended

  • Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods. Part A, Fundamentals and Techniques, E. Heftmann, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).
  • Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of  Drugs, Moffat A. C., Pharmaceutical Press, London (1975).
  • Identification of  Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Thin Layer chromatography (2nd ed.), P.D. Sethi, CBS Publishers (1999).
  • Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas (2nd ed.), Hildebert Wagner, SabineBladt, Springer-Verlag, New York (1996).
  • Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Laboratory Handbook, Egon Stahl, Springer-Verlag (1969).

 

PHG-827
Advances in Pharmacognosy   Cr. Hrs. 3

Study of selected topics about biologically and therapeutically active constituents of natural origin as:

1. Screening and evaluation.
2. Cleavage of glycoside linkages.
3. Isolation of triterpenoidal saponins.
4. Isolation of the biologically active principles.
5. Detection and isolation of steroidal saponins.
6. Pharmacological approaches to natural product.
7. Neolignans with potential biological activity.
8. Triterpenoidalsaponins, steroidal saponins, alkaloids and diterpenes from Euphorbiaceae.
9. Saponins with biological and pharmacological activity.
10.Dimeric natural compounds with pharmacological activity.
11.mono-, di- and sequi-terpenes from plants with pharmacological or therapeutical activity.
12.Recent experimental and clinical data for antitumor and cytotoxic agents.
13.Problems and prospects of discovering new drugs from higher plants.

 

Books Recommended

  • Williams Textbook of Endocrinology (11th ed.), Henry Kronenberg, Robert Hardin Williams, Saunder/Elsevier (2008).
  • Anticancer Agents from Natural Products, Gordon M. Cragg, David G. I. Kingston, David J. Newman, CRC Press (2005).
  • Nutraceuticals: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals (2nd ed.), Brain Lockwood, Pharmaceutical Press London (2007).
  • Cosmeceuticals and Active Cosmetics: Drugs versus Cosmetics, Peter Elsner, Howard I. Maibach (Eds.), CRC Press (2005).
  • Plants in Cosmetics: Plants and Plant Preparations used as Ingredients for Cosmetic Products. Anton R., Patri F., Silan V., Council of Europe Publishing (2001).

PHG-829  
Cell Biotechnolog    Cr. Hrs. 3

Study of plant cell culture techniques for higher yield of secondary metabolites used as drugs. Elucidation and regulation of biosynthetic pathways in cell cultures of plants having scientific as well as economic value.

Books Recommended

  • Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology, AsutoshKar, New Age International Publishers (2003).
  • Biotechnology (1st ed.), David P. Clark, Nanette J Pazdernik, Academic Press (2012).
  • Biotechnology: Theory and Techniques (vol.1, 1st ed.), Jack G Chirikjian, Jones and Bartlett Publishers (1995).
  • Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Practices, Channarayappa, Tylor and Francis (2007).
  • Plant Cell and Tissue Culture-A Tool in Biotechnology Basics and Application, Karl-Hermann Neumann, Ashwani Kumar, Jafargholi Imani, Springer (2009).

PHG-831
Biosynthesis of Natural Products    Cr. Hrs. 3

Introduction, mechanism and biosynthetic pathway of amino acids, vitamins, phenolic compounds, terpenes, steroids, alkaloids and glycosides.

Books Recommended

  • Biosynthesis of Natural Products, Manitto P., John Wiley and Sons, New York, (1981).
  • Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach (1st ed.), Paul M Dewick, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester (1997).
  • Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy (16th ed.), William C. Evans, George E. Trease, Daphne        Evans, Elsevier (2009).
  • Pharmacognosy (9th ed.), Tyler V.E., Brady E.R. and Robbers J.E. Lea &Febiger, Philadelphia (1988).
  • Advances in Botanical Research: Biosynthesis of  Vitamins in Plants A; Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5 (Vol. 58), Fabrice Rebeille, Roland Douce (Eds.), Academic Press (2011).

 

SECOND SEMESTER

PHG-822
Computer Application in Pharmacy   Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Fundamentals
Basic concepts of computer, disk, disk operating systems and programming.

2. Use of computer in research
Literature survey and use of information services via computer. Preliminary introduction to some packages: PC tools, Norton Utilities, any one of the popular word processor, data base, and spread sheet packages, Energraphics and SPSS Statistical package. Researchpaper and dissertation composing by computer.

3. Use of computer in hospital pharmacy
Computerization of different hospital systems as, management, finance, patient history and profiles, drug utilization reports. Drug information systems of diagnositics, interactions and poison control. Computerization of drug distribution system in central Pharmacy and satellite pharmacies, drug inventory control, inpatient registration and management of nursing floors and surgical rooms.Patient information distribution among medical professionals.Prescription evaluation, costing, transmission of necessary information for patient and record keeping.Drug/plasma level monitoring, dose calculations.

4. Use of computer in pharmaceutical industry
Use of computers in production planning, budgeting, scheduling, accounts, batch-wise cost accounting; managing production and packaging; raw material and packing material stores via computer. Quality assurance assessments, quality control charts, computation of shelf life and bioequivallence studies. Personnel management, sales, distribution control and evaluation.

Books Recommended

  • Peter Norton’s New Inside the PC, Peter Norton, Scott H. Clark, Sams Publishing (2002).
  • System Analysis and Design, Alan Dennis, Barbara Haley Wixom, Roberta M Roth, John Wiley and Sons (2008).
  • Understanding and Using MS-DOS/PC-DOS (2nd ed.), Cody T. Copeland, Jonathan Bacon, West Publisher Co. (1990).
  • Doing Data Analysis with SPSS version 18.0, Robert H Carver, Jane Gradwohl Nash, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning (2012).
  • Information Technology in Pharmacy: An Integrated Approach (vol. 2), Stephen Goundrey-Smith, Springer Science and Buiseness Media (2012).

 

PGH-824
Structure Elucidation of Natural Products   Cr. Hrs. 3

Application of spectroscopic and chemical techniques to elucidate the structure of natural products with particular reference to alkaloids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids and terpenes.

Books Recommended

  • Mass Spectrometry:Instrumentation, Interpretation and Applications, Rolf Ekman, Jerzy Silberring, Ann Westman-Brinkmalam, Agnieszka Kra (Eds.), WielyInterscience, New Jersy (2009).
  • Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry (vol. 1), John C. Lindon, Georg E. Tranter, John L. Holmes, John L. Aaa, Elsevier Science (2000).
  • Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications, Barbara H. Stuart, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. (2004).
  • NMR Spectroscopy in Pharmaceutical Analysis, IwonaWawer, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Bernd Diehl, Elsevier Publisher (2008).
  • Pharmaceutical Analysis, David Lee, Michael Webb, BlackWell Publishing Ltd. (2003).

PHG-826
Natural Toxicants   Cr. Hrs. 3

Overview of natural toxicants.Study of simple phytotoxins, pyrrolizine and indolizidine alkaloids toxicity, plant teratogens, plant irritant, plant-induced cardiac and pulmonary diseases, treatment and prevention of plant toxicosis.

Books Recommended

  • Herbal Products, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Timothy S. Tracy, Richard L. Kingston (Eds.), 2nd ed., Humana Press, Totowa (2007).
  • Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, S. H. AbidAskari, Oxford University Press (2010).
  • Poisonous Plants: A Hand Book for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians (2nd ed.), Dietrich Forhne, Hans J Pfander, Manson Publishing, London (2004).
  • Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins, Thomas Acamovic, Colin S. Stewart, T. W. Pennycott, CABI (2003).
  • Poisonous Plants: A Hand Book for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians (2nd ed.), Dietrich Forhne, Hans J Pfander, Manson Publishing, London (2004).

PHG-828
Advance Phytopharmaceutical Analysis   Cr. Hrs. 3

Separation Techniques
Theory, instrumentation, applications of GLC, HPLC, HPTLC, Chiral chromatography, Ion Pair chromatography and Capillary electrophoresis.

Spectroscopic Methods
Introduction, application and structure elucidation using UV, IR, NMR and Mass Spectroscopy with examples.

Thermal Analysis
Theory, instrumentation and applications of thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning, colorimetery.

Immunochemical Techniques
Immuno-electrophoresis, immuno-precipitation, ELISA, Radio- Immunoassays.

Quality Assurance Techniques
Introduction, validation of equipments and processes of herbal product manufacturing etc.

Books Recommended

  • Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods. Part A, Fundamentals and Techniques, E. Heftmann, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).
  • Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of  Drugs, Moffat A. C., Pharmaceutical Press, London (1975).
  • Identification of  Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Thin Layer Chromatography (2nd ed.), P.D. Sethi, CBS Publishers (1999).
  • Plant Drug Analysis: A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas (2nd ed.), Hildebert Wagner, SabineBladt, Springer-Verlag, New York (1996).
  • Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Laboratory Handbook, EgonStahl,Springer-Verlag (1969).

 

PHG-830
Industrial Pharmacognosy   Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Herbal drug regulatory affairs.

2. Information retrieval systems of  herbal drugs.

3. Literature survey, dosage form and drug design of the following:

a. Immunomodulators: Withanaia somnifera, Centella asiatica, Embelica officinalis, Ocimum sanctum.
b. Antipeptic ulcer: Glycerrhiza glabra, Zingiber officinale, Solanum tuberosum, Atropa belladonna.
c. Hepatoprotectives: Silybummarianum, Phyllanthus indica, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Andrographis paniculata.
d. Anticancer: Taxus species, Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseous.
e. Antifertility: Embelica ribes, Azadirachta indica, Gassypium species.
f. Nervine Tonic: Centella asiatica, Acorus calamus, Valeriana wallichiam, Valeriana jatamensii.

g. Anti-AIDS: Areca catechu, Thea sinensis, Ricinus communis.

4. Volatile oils and their commercial significance.

5. Review of natural sweeteners, dyes, pigments and preservatives.

Books Recommended

  • Textbook of Industrial Pharmacognosy, A. N. Kalia, CBS Publishers, (2009).
  • Herbal Drugs Industry: A Practical Approach to Industrial Pharmacognosy, Ram Dev Chaudry, Eastern Publishers, (1996)
  • History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Industry, Patrice Boussel, Henri Bonnemaine, Frank James Bové, Asklepios Press (1983).

PHG-832
Phytomedicine   Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Cultivation and post harvest technology
Cultivation and post harvest technology of Papaver somniferum, Solanum nigrum, Withania somniferum, Cassia angustifolia.

2. Isolation and estimation
Isolation and estimation of clove oil, atropine, curcumin, vinca alkaloids, quinidine, taxol,emetine, sennoside, glycyrrhizin, starch, microcrystalline cellulose.

3. Structural elucidation
Structural elucidation of citral, nicotine, atropine, amygdaline, caffeine, morphine.

4. Chemotaxonomy
Flavonoids and terpenoids.

5. Marine natural products

6. Effects of pests on phytomedicine

Books Recommended

  • Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods. Part A, Fundamentals and Techniques, E. Heftmann, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).
  • Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of  Drugs, Moffat A. C., Pharmaceutical Press, London (1975).
  • The Chemotaxonomy of Plants, Philip M. Smith , Edward Arnold (1976).
  • Marine Pharmacognosy: Trends and Applications (1st ed.), Se-Kwon Kim (Ed.) CRC Press; (2012).
  • Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds (6th ed.), P.S. Kalsi, New Age Publisers (2004).

PHG-834
Standardization of Phytomedicine  Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Plant Extracts
Preparation and standardization of the extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Solanum xanthocarpum, Ocimum sanctum, Adhatoda vasica, Emblica officinalis, Centella asiatica, Melia azadirachta, Withania somnifera.

2. Traditional drug formulations
Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Unani and Aromatherapy.

3. Herbal drug formulations
Cosmeceuticals: skin and hair care products.

4. Agroproducts of economic importance
Corn oil, soybean, spirulina, pectin, papain.

5. Standardization of Phytopharmaceuticals by HPTLC technique
Bacoside, andrographolide, solasodine, glycyrrhetinic acid, vasicine, sennosides.

6 Standardization of Phytopharmaceutical by HPLC technique
Amarogentin, asiaticoside, cordifolioside, lupeol, solasodine, vasicine.

Books Recommended

  • Chromatography: Fundamentals and Applications of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods. Part A, Fundamentals and Techniques, E. Heftmann, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1983).
  • Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs, Moffat A. C., Pharmaceutical Press, London (1975).
  • Quality Control of Herbal Drugs: An Approach to Evaluation of Botanicals.  Pulok K. Mukherjee Business Horizons (2002).
  • Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals, Norman G. Bisset (Ed.) Medphram Scientific Publishers, Stutgart (1994).
  • Herbal Drugs and Finger Prints: Evidence Based Herbal Drugs, Devi Datt Joshi, Springer (2012).

 

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Ph.D

FIRST SEMESTER

PHG – 901
Research Seminars  Cr. Hrs. 3

This course is based on three seminars given by the Ph.D. students in three phases before the submission of thesis. Each seminar will be of 1 credit hour.

PHG –903
Attending Seminars / Conferences/ Workshops    Cr. Hrs. 6

ResearchPublications / Project Proposal for Funding
This course is based on academic activities of the Ph.D. scholar: participating or presenting papers in any three seminars / conferences/ symposiums/ workshops (national or international)/ publish articles in BASR/HEC/ISI Indexed journals or writing a project proposal for funding from national or international sponsoring agencies. (The concerned research supervisor shall award the grades to the scholar).

PHG-933
Research Methodology    Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Research objective

2. Selection of the area of research
Medical, pharmaceutical sciences, basic health sciences, applied sciences, social sciences, literature.

3. Selection of research guide/supervisor

4. Selection of topic / problem
Construction of a strong statement that summarizes the selected topic.

Summarize key points on which research would be carried out and make it a part of work plan.

5. Sources of information
Books, journals/periodicals, old testimonials, news papers, internet, proceedings of conferences, seminars, workshops, training programs and conversations.

6. Detail of equipments / fields / area
Type of  Instruments: Their models, make and country of origin; Validation: reliability and accuracy; Service centers: availability of supplies and engineers; Environment: laboratory conditions.

7. Plan of work
a. Collection of material/authentication
b. Preliminary screening/ pilot plan
c. Experimental: detailed procedure, recording of observations, calculations, results, conclusion.

8. Places for practical work and resources
Identifying a place where research work would be conducted, sources of information and experimental work.

9. Result compilation
Selection of results: What kind of results can be submitted? Where to submit? How to submit? How non-significant results can be submitted? Who will benefit from this research? Prospects of implementing research work.

Books Recommended

  • Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper (3rd ed.) Arlene Fink., Sage Publications (2010).
  • Engaging Inquiry: Research and Writing in the Disciplines, Judy Kirscht, Mark Schlenz, Prentice Hall (2001).
  • Practical Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry (6th ed.), Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin, Allyn and Bacon (2006).
  • Practical Research: Pearson New International Edition: Planning and Design, Paul D. Leedy, Jeanne E. Ormrod, Pearson Education Ltd. (2013).
  • Mixed Methods in Health Sciences Research: A Practical Primer (vol. 1), Leslie Curry, Marcella Nunez-Smith, SAGE Publications (2014).

PHG-937
Marine Resources and their Applications   Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Introduction to marine resources

2. Marine habitat as source for pharmaceuticals

3. Marine derived nutraceuticals

4. Marine cosmeceuticals

5. Marine toxins

6. Marine biotechnology

Recommended Books

  • Marine Pharmacognosy: Trends and Applications (1st ed.), Se-Kwon Kim (Ed.), CRC Press, (2012).
  • Marine Pharmacognosy: Action of  MarineBiotoxins at the Cellular Level, Dean Frederick Martin, Elsevier Science (2012).
  • Drugs from the Sea (1st ed.), NobuhiroFusetani (Ed.), S. Karger Pub. (2000).
  • Marine Products for Healthecare: Functional and Bioactive Marine Nutraceuticals Series, VazhiyilVenugopal, CRC Press (2009).
  • Marine Toxins and other Bioactive Marine Metabolites, Yoshiro Hashimoto, Japan Scientific Societies Press (2009).

 

SECOND SEMESTER

PHG -902
Seminars on Current Advances in the Discipline   Cr. Hrs. 3

This course is based on a seminar to be given by the Ph.D. scholar on the recent development/ research done in the discipline.

PHG -904
Thesis writing and submission   Cr. Hrs. 6

This course is based on PhD. thesis writing and submission. (The concerned research supervisor shall award the grades to the scholar).

PHG-936
Herbal Bioequivalence   Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Herbal pharmacokinetics
Definition, importance and ethical standards of bioequivalence. Assay methods of drugs in biological fluids, validation of assay methods, clinical statistical evaluation (AUC, AUMC, Cmax), biological half life, distribution volume.

2. Herbal pharmacodynamics
Clinical responses to a drug on different physiological systems (ENT, CVS, CNS, UGS, RS and RTS).

3. Guide lines for bioequivalence
a. WHO guide lines for Bioequivalence.
b. FDA guide lines for Bioequivalence.

4. Patents for herbal formulations/products
Procedure for patenting  natural products.

5. Techniques used in new product development
a. New product data, therapeutic window, minimum effective concentration, minimum toxic concentration, dosage time.
b. Waiver or bioequivalence

6. Biequivalence studies on natural sources
Literature survey and clinical data on: Silybum marianum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Centella asiatica, Hypericum perforatum, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Digitalis purpurea, Gingko biloba, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ginseng cinerarii folium, Ginseng quinquefolium.

Books Recommended

  • BioPharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics (4th ed.), Milo Gibaldi, Lea and Febiger (1991).
  • Applied Bioparmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics (6th ed.), Leon Shargel, Andrew Yu, Susanna Wu-Pong, McGraw Hill Professional (2012).
  • Essentials of Bioparmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, AshutoshKar, Elsevier (2011).
  • Bioparmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Jayant S Kulkarni, CBS Publishers (2008).
  • Basic Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: An Integrated Text Book and Computer Simulations, Sara E. Rosenbaum, John Wiley and Sons (2012).

PHG-938
Agriculture Pharmacognosy   Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Introduction
Definition of agriculture/farming and procedures. Techniques used in growth, cultivation, collection and harvest.  Role in production/supply of food and medicinal material for commercial market.Classification of plant drugs.

2. Procedure
Biological and chemical processes by which crops and livestock grow; factors affecting the growth and quality of food, medicinal and ornamental plants.

3. Planting, Farming and Harvesting of Herbal Medicine
Plant evolution, taxonomy, morphology, distribution, species, mode of propagation; Cultivation: Land preparation for small scale/ large scale cultivation. Soil and climatic factors, Planting, fertilizers, irrigation, Intercultures, transplantation, pests and diseases.Harvesting, yield, chemical and pharmacological status, drying, storage, processing, economics and utilization.

4. Plant Pathology
Study of plant diseases origination and environmental conditions that cause infectious diseases, the mechanisms and the process by which it occurs. The effect of diseases on plant growth, yield, quality. The methods of preventing diseases in plants.

5. Adulteration and Evaluation
Agriculture material i.e food/drugs on different bases in botanical.Chemical and biological types of adulterants and their detection methods.

6. Agronomy
Study of the technology for successful growth and management of crop/plants and their usage as food, fuel, feed and fiber e.g Sun flower, Zea mays, grains, sugar-cane, peanuts, cotton, potato. Integrated study and application of biology, chemistry, ecology, earth science and genetics.

7. Sustainable Development
Plant drugs / food for commercial market. Ephedra spp. Allium spp., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Piper nigrum, Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale.

Recommended Books

  • Pharmacognosy (Pharmacognosy and Plant Cultivation, vol. 2), Mohammad Ali, CBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (2008).
  • Pharmacognosy (9th ed.), Tyler VE, Brady LR, Robbers JE, Lea and Febiger (2009).
  • Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy (16th ed.), William C Evans, George E Trease, Daphne Evans, Elsevier (2009).
  • Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry (1st ed.), Biren Shah, Avinash Seth, Elsevier Health Sciences (2012).
  • Herbs Cultivation and Medicinal Uses, H. Panda, National Institute of Industrial Research, 2005.

PHG-940
Advances in Clinical Pharmacognosy    Cr. Hrs. 3

1. Clinical uses and evaluation of herbal medicines.

2. Role and utilization of minerals, animals and marine resources in the management and cure of diseases.

3. Clinical application of plant extractives and natural compounds with special reference to Pharmacopoeia.

4. Ethical issues concerning the use of crude natural products, extractives, natural and semisynthetic compounds.

5. Molecular modes of action of drugs used in phytomedicine.

6. Herb-drug/ herb-food interactions of commonly used medicinal plants.

Recommended Books

  • Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects (2nd ed.) Iris F. F. Benzie and SissiWachtel-Galor. CRC Press (2011).
  • Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice, Ronald Ross Watson, Victora  R. Preedy, CABI (2008).
  • Herbal Medicines: Development and Validation of Plant-derived Medicines for Human Health, GiacintoBagetta, Marco Cosentino, Marie TizianaCorasaniti, Shinobu Sakurada, CRC Press (2012).
  • Recent Advances in Plant-based, Traditional and Natural Medicine. SubramayamVemulpad, Joanne Jamie, CRC Press (2014).
  • Textbook of Natural Medicine (4th ed.), Joseph E. Pizzorno, Michael T. Murray, Elsevier (2013).

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Pharm-D Deficiency

FIRST SEMESTER

PHG-514(D)
Natural Toxicants  Cr. Hrs. 2

1. General introduction to plant toxicology
Classification and chemical nature of natural toxins and toxicities in humans and animals.

2. Higher plant toxins
Essential oils: Terpene (cineol, pine oil), Phenyl propane (apiol, safrole, myristicin), Monoterpene (thujone, menthafuran) Plant acids (oxalic acid, amino acid, resin acid), Glycosides (cardiotonic, cyanognic glycosides), Alkaloids (imidazole, pyrrolizidine, tropane).

3. Lower plant toxins
Bacterial toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum), Algal toxins (Microcystis aeruginosa, Cyanobecteria, Gonyaulax cantenella).

4. Mycotoxins
Fungal toxins (Aspergillus spp., Claviceps purpurea), Mushrooms (Amanita spp.).

4. Study of toxins, their prevention and control methods
Description, pharmacognostic features, pharmacological actions, chemical constituents, treatment, side-effects, contra-indications, warnings, prevention and control methods of Abrus precatorius, Papaver somniferum, Eucalyptus spp., Nicotiana tabaccum, Cannabis sativa, Digitalis purpurea, Datura stramonium poisoning.

Books Recommended

  • Herbal Products, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology (2nd ed.), Timothy S. Tracy, Richard L. Kingston (Eds.), Humana Press, Totowa (2007).
  • Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, S. H. Abid Askari, Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Poisonous Plants: A Hand Book for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians (2nd ed.), Dietrich Forhne, Hans J Pfander, Manson Publishing, London (2004).
  • Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins, Thomas Acamovic, Colin S. Stewart, T. W. Pennycott, CABI (2003).
  • Poisonous Plants: A Hand Book for Doctors, Pharmacists, Toxicologists, Biologists and Veterinarians (2nd ed.), Dietrich Forhne, Hans J Pfander, Manson Publishing, London (2004).

 

SECOND SEMESTER

PHG-713(D)
Clinical Pharmacognosy  Cr. Hrs. 2

1.     Introduction to clinical Pharmacognosy
General introduction and historical background of clinical Pharmacognosy. Study of causes, pathogenesis, clinical features (sign and symptoms), diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and epidemiology of chronic diseases; principles of medication, treatment by herbal medicines.

2.     Clinical Use of herbal medicine
Diabetes: Gymnema sylvestre, Melia azadirchta, Momordica charantia, Syzygium jambulana.
Cardiac diseases: Digitalis spp., Convallaria majalis, Urgenia indica, Allium sativum, Punica granatum.
Hepatitis:Berberis vulgaris, Picrorhiza kurroa, Lawsonia innermis.
Respiratory diseases: Ficus religiosa, Adhatoda vasica.
Skin diseases: Aloe vera, Angelica archangelica, Mentha piperita, Citrus spp., Commiphora mukul.
CNS disorders:Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium, Cannabis sativa, Papaver somniferum, Atropa belladonna.
Musculo-skeletal disorders: Nigella sativa, Phycotis ajowan, Trigonella foenum-­graecum, Zingiber officinale.
Renal disorders: Cucumis melo, Berberis vulgaris, Zea mays, Tribulus terrestris.
Reproductive disorders: Saraca indica, Ruta graveolens, Nigella sativa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Claviceps purpurea, Myristica fragrance.
G.I.T. disorders: Foeniculum vulgare, Ferula foetida, Cuminum cyminum, Aegle marmelos, Prunus domestica.

Books Recommended

  • Principle and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine, Kerry Bone, Simons Mills, Churchil Livingstone (2013).
  • Pharmacological Methods in Phytotherapy Research, Selection, Preparation and Pharmacological Evaluation of Plant Material (vol.1), Elizabeth M. Williamson, David T. Okpako, Fred J. Evans, Wiley Publishers, (1996)
  • Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants (vol. 5), T-Pullaiah., Regency Publication, New Delhi (2006).
  • Natural Products: Drug Discovery and Therapeutic Medicine, Lixin Zhang, Arnold L. Demain (Eds.), Humana Press (2005).
  • Hand Book of Clinical Pharmacy, Dr. A. V. Yadav, B.V. Yadav, T.I. Shaikh, Nirali Parkashan, Pune (2008).

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